Prof. Dr. Manfred Krug

Chair of English Linguistics

An der Universität 9, Raum 01.01

D-96047 Bamberg

+49 951/863-2165


  • 1989-91 & 1992-96: studied English, Latin and Greek at Freiburg University (teaching assistant in English Linguistics and Classical Archaeology; research assistant in English Linguistics; scholarship awarded by the Evangelisches Studienwerk)
  • 1991-92: M.A. in Applied Linguistics, University of Exeter (England)
  • 1996-99: Member of academic staff (50% position) and PhD programme at Freiburg University (major: English Linguistics, minor subjects: Latin and German Linguistics)
  • 1998: USA grant for PhD students: Research stays and presentations at the universities of Albuquerque, NM; Berkeley, CA; Flagstaff, AZ; Stanford, CA
  • 1999-2004: Post-doc/Assistant professor (C1), University of Freiburg
  • 2002: Visiting Professor at Portland State University, Oregon, USA
  • 2003: Completion of postdoctoral project ("Habilitation") in English Philology, University of Freiburg
  • 2004-05: Associate Professor (C2) at Freiburg University
  • 2005-06: Chair of English Linguistics (Focus on Diachrony), University of Mannheim
  • since 2006: Chair of English Linguistics and Language History, University of Bamberg
  • 2003-09: shortlisted for professorships also at Basel, Berlin, Leipzig, Tübingen, Vienna


  • 2000. Emerging English Modals: A Corpus-Based Study of Grammaticalization; Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. iv, 332pp. DOI:
  • 2003. (Facchinetti, Roberta, Manfred Krug & Frank Palmer; eds.). Modality in Contemporary English; Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. xiii, 396pp.
  • 2013 (with Julia Schlüter; eds.). Research Methods in Language Variation and Change; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. xxvi, 511pp.
  • 2018 (with Christopher Lucas; eds.). The Noun Phrase in Maltese and Maltese English (Special Issue of  Language Typology and Universals/Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 71.2, 158pp.).
  • 2022 (with Valentin Werner, Ole Schützler & Fabian Vetter, eds.). Perspectives on Contemporary English: Structure, Variation, Cognition. Berlin: Lang. 243pp.

Journal articles, handbook chapters, conference proceedings (selection)

  • 1998a. Englisch-deutsche Korpusanalysen: Kontrastive und diachrone Aspekte und ihre Relevanz im universitären Fremdsprachenunterricht. In Wolfgang Börner & Klaus Vogel (eds.) Kontrast und Äquivalenz: Beiträge zu Sprachvergleich und Übersetzung. Tübingen: Narr, 168-193.
  • 1998b. British English is Developing a New Discourse Marker, Innit? A Study in Lexicalisation Based on Social, Regional and Stylistic Variation; Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik 23:2, 145-197.
  • 1998c. String Frequency: A Cognitive Motivating Factor in Coalescence, Language Processing and Linguistic Change; Journal of English Linguistics 26:4, 286-320. DOI:
  • 1999. Wanna: A new core member of the English modal paradigm? A study in grammaticalization. In Hans Otto Spillmann & Ingo Warnke (eds.) Linguistik International 1: Internationale Tendenzen der Syntaktik, Semantik und Pragmatik (Akten des 32. Linguistischen Kolloquiums in Kassel 1997). Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 239-248.
  • 2001. Frequency, Iconicity, Categorization. In Joan Bybee & Paul Hopper (eds.) Frequency and the Emergence of Linguistic Structure. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 309-335. DOI:
  • 2002. A path to volitional modality. In Teresa Fanego, Maria José López-Couso & Javier Pérez-Guerra (eds.) English Historical Syntax and Morphology: Selected Papers from the Eleventh International Conference on English Historical Linguistics (11 ICEHL) 2000 at Santiago de Compostela (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, 223). Amsterdam: Benjamis, 131-155.
  • 2003. Frequency as a Determinant in Grammatical Variation and Change. In Günter Rohdenburg & Britta Mondorf (eds.) Determinants of Grammatical Variation in English. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 7-67. DOI:
  • 2003. (Great) Vowel Shifts Present and Past: Meeting Ground for Structural and Natural Phonologists;Penn Working Papers 9.2: Selected papers from 11 NWAVE at Stanford, CA, USA, 107-122.
  • 2007. Modern Methodologies and Changing Standards in English Linguistics. In María Losada Friend, Pilar Ron Vaz, Sonia Hernández Santano & Jorge Casanova (eds.) Proceedings of the 30th International AEDEAN Conference. Huelva: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Huelva. [CD-Rom]
  • 2009. Modality and the History of English Adhortatives. In Raphael Salkie, Pierre Busuttil & Johan van der Auwera (eds.), Modality in English. Theory and Description (Topics in English Linguistics). Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 315-347. DOI:
  • 2010 (with Michaela Hilbert). The compilation of ICE Malta: State of the Art and Challenges Along the Way; ICAME Journal 34: 54-63.
  • 2011. Auxiliaries and Grammaticalization. In Bernd Heine & Heiko Narrog (eds.) Handbook of Grammaticalization. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 547-558. DOI:
  • 2011 (with Lisa Bonnici & Michaela Hilbert). Maltese English. In Bernd Kortmann & Kerstin Lunkenheimer (eds.) The electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English [eWAVE]. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  • 2012 (with Michaela Hilbert). Progressives in Maltese English: A comparison with spoken and written text types of British and American English. In Ulrike Gut & Marianne Hundt (eds.) Mapping Unity in Diversity (Varieties of English around the World). Amsterdam: Benjamins, 103-136.
  • 2012. Ch. 48: The Great Vowel Shift. In: Alexander Bergs & Laurel Brinton (eds.) Historical Linguistics of English: An International Handbook (Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science, HSK). Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 756-776.
  • 2012 (with Anna Rosen). Standards of English in Malta and the Channel Islands. In Raymond Hickey (ed.) Standards of English: Codified Varieties around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 117-138. DOI:
  • 2012 (with Lisa Bonnici & Michaela Hilbert). Maltese English. In Kortmann, Bernd & Kerstin Lunkenheimer (eds.) The Mouton World Atlas of Variation in English. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 653-668.
  • 2013 (with Ole Schützler). Recent Change and Grammaticalization. In Bas Aarts, Geoffrey Leech, Joanne Close & Jeremy Smith (eds.) The Verb Phrase in English: Investigating recent language change with corpora. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 155-186. DOI:
  • 2013 (with Julia Schlüter): Preface. In Manfred Krug & Julia Schlüter (eds.) Research Methods in Language Variation and Change; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, xx-xxv.
  • 2013 (with Julia Schlüter & Anette Rosenbach). Introduction: Investigating language variation and change. In Manfred Krug & Julia Schlüter (eds.) Research Methods in Language Variation and Change; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1-13.
  • 2013 (with Katrin Sell). Designing and Conducting Interviews and Questionnaires. In Manfred Krug & Julia Schlüter (eds.) Research Methods in Language Variation and Change. Cambridge University Press, 69-98. DOI:
  • 2015. Maltese English. In Jeffrey P. Williams, Edgar Schneider, Peter Trudgill & Daniel Schreier (eds.), Further Studies in the Lesser-Known Varieties of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 10-50. DOI:
  • 2016 (with Ole Schützler and Valentin Werner). Patterns of linguistic globalization: Integrating typological profiles and questionnaire data. In Olga Timofeeva, Anne-Christine Gardner, Alpo Honkapohja & Sarah Chevalier (eds.) New Approaches to English Linguistics: Building Bridges. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins, 35-66. DOI:
  • 2017. The Great Vowel Shift. In Alexander Bergs & Laurel Brinton (eds.) The History of English (Vol.4): Early Modern English. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 241-266. DOI:
  • 2017 (with Lukas Sönning). Language change in Maltese English: The influence of age and parental languages. In Patrizia Paggio & Albert Gatt (eds.) The languages of Malta (Studies in Diversity Linguistics Series). Berlin: Language Science Press, 247-270. DOI:
  • 2018 (with Christopher Lucas). Definite article (omission) in British, Maltese, and other Englishes.Special issue of Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 71.2: 261-303. DOI: 10.1515/stuf-2018-0012.
  • 2018 (with Christopher Lucas). Introduction. The Noun Phrase in Maltese and Maltese English. Special Issue of Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 71.2: 169-173.
  • 2020 (with Ole Schützler and Valentin Werner). How British is Gibraltar English? In Paloma Nuñez Pertejo, María José López-Couso, Belén Méndez-Naya & Javier Perez-Guerra, eds. Crossing Linguistic Boundaries: Systemic, Synchronic and Diachronic Variation in English. London: Bloomsbury, 153-186. DOI:
  • 2020. The Great Vowel Shift. In Dan McIntyre (ed.) History of English: A Resource Book for Students. London, New York: Routledge, 156-166.
  • 2022 (with Ole Schützler, Valentin Werner & Fabian Vetter). Introduction: Perspectives on Structure, Variation and Cognition in Contemporary English. In Krug et al. (eds.): Perspectives on Contemporary English: Structure, Variation, Cognition. Berlin: Lang, 7-11.
  • 2022 (with Lukas Sönning). Comparing study designs and down-sampling strategies in corpus analysis: The importance of speaker metadata in the BNCs of 1994 and 2014. In Ole Schützler & Julia Schlüter (eds.) Data and methods in corpus linguistics: Comparative approaches. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 127-159.
  • 2022 (with Don Watson & Claus-Christian Carbon). The relationship between citations and the linguistic traits of specific academic discourse communities identified by using Social Network Analysis. Scientometrics 127: 1755–1781. DOI:
  • 2023 (with Julia Schlüter, and Berit Ellies). Supporting Data for 'English Dental Fricatives and Their Substitutes in EFL Learners: A Study of L1-German University Students and Implications for EFL Teaching'. DOI:
  • Accepted for publication 2024 (with Lukas Sönning, Fabian Vetter, Paul Messer, Anne Leucht & Timo Schmid). Latent-variable modeling of ordinal outcomes in language data analysis. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics. doi: 10.31219/
  • Forthcoming. English Dental Fricatives and Their Substitutes in EFL Learners: A Study of L1-German University Students and Implications for EFL Teaching. In Anna Rosen & Katharina Beuter (eds.) Englische Sprachwissenschaft und Fachdidaktik im Dialog: Chancen zur Stärkung der Lehrkräftebildung. DOI:
  • Forthcoming (with Ray Fabri & Michaela Hilbert): Maltese English Morphosyntax: Corpus-Based and Questionnaire-Based Studies; Il-Lingwa Taghna (Special Issue; Alexandra Vella & Ray Fabri, eds.) Towards a Description of Maltese English, 49pp.
  • Ms. submitted for publication (with Berit Ellies). The Representation of Black Namibian English in Namibia: The Struggle for Liberation (2007) and the Motivations of Regional Features in World Englishes.

Plenary and invitational papers

  • Recurrent paths in the evolution of new English auxiliaries. International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley, 1998.
  • Frequency, Iconicity, Categorization: Evidence from Emerging Modals; Paper given at the invitational symposium Frequency Effects and Emergent Grammar. Carnegie Mellon University, July 1999.
  • Frequency as a Determinant in Grammatical Variation and Change; Paper given at the invitational symposium Determinants of Grammatical Variation in English. Paderborn, 2001.
  • Adhortative let’s: Negation and Grammaticalization; Plenary paper given at Pau, France: 2nd International Conference on Modality in English, Sept. 2004.
  • Historical Corpus Linguistics and Beyond; Paper given at the invitational symposium Corpus Linguistics – Perspectives for the Future. Heidelberg, Oct. 2004.
  • The Quest for Grammaticalization Parameters; Plenary paper given at Leuven, Belgium: From Ideational to Interpersonal: Perspectives from Grammaticalization (FitiGra), Feb. 2005.
  • Lecture Series on Grammaticalization and Language Change. Santiago de Compostela, May/June 2005.
  • Modern Methodologies and Changing Standards in English Linguistics; Plenary paper given at the Annual meeting of the Spanish Association for English and American Studies (AEDEAN, Associación Española De Estudio Anglo-Norteamericano), Spain. Dec. 2006.
  • Developing a Questionnaire for Investigating English-Romance Contact Varieties of English; Athens, GA, Oct. 2008
  • Recent Change and Grammaticalization in Constructions Marking Intention; Invitational Symposium on Current Change celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Survey of English Usage. London, July 2009.
  • Research Methodologies and Questionnaire Design: Investigating Language Variation and Change; Lecture series Cambridge, Winter 2010.
  • Maltese English: Grammar and Lexicon; Zurich, May 2010.
  • Sprachkontakt in Malta: Amerikanisierung – Globalisierung – Glokalisierung?; Erlangen, June 2010
  • Lecture Series on Contrastive Corpus Linguistics (English vs. German); Auxiliaries, Typology, Grammaticalization. University of South Carolina, March 2011.
  • Synchrony and diachrony: The role of corpora in the investigation of modality in English. Plenary paper at the Conference Modality, Corpus, Discourse; Lund (Sweden), June 2012.
  • 2nd-language varieties of English: Between globalization, regionalisation and exonormative standards. Augsburg, May 2013.
  • Maltese English: Fact or Fiction? October 2013, University of Malta.
  • Lecture Series on Questionnaire Studies and Language Change in English. Ljubljana, May 2014.
  • Questionnaire-based typologies for varieties of English around the world. June 2014, Regensburg.
  • Puerto Rican English: Between American and British English? Feb. 2015, University of Puerto Rico at Río Piedras.
  • English-Spanish language contact in Puerto Rico and patterns of linguistic globalization. March 2016, University of Texas at Austin.
  • Studies of social and stylistic variation in Englishes around the world. March 2016, University of Texas at Austin.
  • Linguistic Globalization in Varieties of English as a Native, Second and Foreign Language. University of Bayreuth, May 2017.
  • The Great Vowel Shift. University of Leipzig, January 2021.


Research Interests

  • Language change (historical and in progress, esp. frequency, grammaticalization, lexicalization)
  • Corpus- and questionnaire-based variation studies
  • English-Romance language contact and change in (pen)insular situations (esp. Malta, Gibraltar, Channel Islands, Puerto Rico)
  • Early Modern English (esp. Great Vowel Shift)
  • Modal and auxiliary verbs
  • Pronoun constructions
  • Contrastive linguistics (esp. English - German)
  • Empirical methods in language variation and change


  • English-Romance language contact and change in (pen)insular situations: Malta, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Jersey, Puerto Rico (with the universities of Malta, Puerto Rico and Cambridge)
  • Scottish English (with the University of Münster): Compilation of ICE-Scotland; Morphosyntactic variation in Scottish Standard English
  • Bamberg Centre for Innovative Applications of Computer Science: Digital Heritage
  • Expansion of the Historical ARCHER Corpus (A Representative Corpus of Historical English Registers, 1650-1990). Cooperation with the following universities:
    Department of English, Northern Arizona University; Department of Linguistics, University of Southern California; Department of English, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg; Department of English, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; Department of English, University of Helsinki; Department of English, Uppsala University; Department of English, University of Michigan; Department of Linguistics and English Language, University of Manchester.
  • Project on Language Variation and Change with the Universities of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)

Editorial activities

  • Co-editor of the Series Bamberg Studies in English Linguistics (Lang)
  • Co-editor of the Series Bamberger Beiträge zur Linguistik (University of Bamberg Press)
  • Member of the Editorial Board of Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory (Mouton de Gruyter)
  • Member of the Advisory Board for the series Language in Performance (LIP; Narr-Francke-Attempto, Tübingen)
  • Member of the Board of Consulting Editors for Linguistics (2005-2010)
  • Member of the Board of Consulting Editors for ATLANTIS, Journal of the Spanish Association for English and American Studies (AEDEAN), section Historical Linguistics
  • Member of the editorial/advisory boards and scientific committees of the conference series Modality in English; The (Biennial) International Conference on the Linguistics of Contemporary English (BICLCE 2005ff.); Gibraltar International Conference (Gibraltar English: Linguistic, Literary and Cultural Perspectives)
  • Referee for (inter alia): British Academy; Swiss National Science Foundation; Humboldt Foundation; German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD); Research Foundation Flanders
  • Referee reports for volumes on corpus linguistics, modality, grammaticalization, usage-based approaches, construction grammar, historical linguistics, research methods and varieties of English for Benjamins, Blackwell, CUP, EUP, OUP, Lang, Mouton de Gruyter
  • Referee reports for (inter alia) the journals Digital Scholarship in the Humanities;English Language and Linguistics; English World-Wide; Journal of Germanic Linguistics; LanguageLanguage in Society; Language Sciences;Language Variation & ChangeTeaching English as a Second or Other Language, and the series Studies in the History of the English Language.


  • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sprachwissenschaft
  • Anglistenverband
  • Member of the Nominating Committee for the International Society for the Linguistics of English (ISLE; with Bas Aarts, Laurie Bauer, Anne Curzan and Rajend Mesthrie) 
  • Trimberg Research Academy; Bamberg Graduate School of Linguistics; Bamberg Centre for Medieval Studies
  • Bamberg Centre for Innovative Applications of Information Technology
  • Alumnus of and grants by (inter alia): Bavarian Ministry for Science and Research; DAAD, DFG, Fulbright and Villigst.
  • Project "WegE": Pioneering Teacher Education

PhD Supervision

As main supervisor

  • Martina Zier (University of Bamberg, ongoing). Attitudes towards teachers before, during and after Covid: A linguistic approach.
  • Donald Watson (University of Bamberg, ongoing). The impact of abstract characteristics: Social network analysis of discourse community-specific linguistic variables in psychology and applied linguistics.
  • Sebastian Pabel (University of Bamberg, ongoing). A computer-driven approach to definite article usage and omission.
  • Romina Buttafoco (University of Bamberg, ongoing). A Quantitative Approach to Informality in Australian English.
  • Michaela Hilbert (University of Bamberg, ongoing). Interrogative constructions in varieties of English.
  • Raquel Pereira Romasanta (Universities of Vigo, Spain, and Bamberg, viva 2020). Variation in the clausal complementation system in World Englishes: A corpus-based study of regret.
  • Fabian Vetter (University of Bamberg, viva 2020). Issues of corpus comparability and register variation in the International Corpus of English: Theories and computer applications.
  • Katharina Beuter (University of Bamberg, viva 2019). Transcultural pragmatics in English as a Lingua Franca interactions: How secondary school students negotiate meaning, rapport and identity.
  • Lukas Sönning (University of Bamberg, viva 2017). Phonological Variation in German Learner English.
  • Katrin Sell (University of Bamberg, viva 2017). Spoken Irish English in Galway.
  • Valentin Werner (University of Bamberg, viva 2013). The Present Perfect in World Englishes: Charting Unity and Diversity.
  • Ole Schützler (University of Bamberg, viva 2012). A Sociophonetic Approach to Scottish Standard English.
  • Anna Rosen (University of Bamberg, viva 2011). Grammatical Variation and Change in Jersey English.

As second/additional/external supervisor or examiner

  • Nicholas Peterson (University of Bamberg, ongoing). Phonetic analyses of learner English.
  • Aklima Nahar (University of Bamberg, Disputation 2023). Placing Bangladeshi English on the Map of World Englishes.
  • Nils Norman Schiborr (University of Bamberg, Disputation 2021). Lexical Anaphora: A corpus-based typological study of referential choice.
  • Daniela Schröder (University of Bamberg, viva 2020). Insubordinate Exclamatives in the History of English.
  • Sofía Bemposta Rivas (University of Vigo, Spain, viva 2020). Verb-governed infinitival complementation in the recent history of English.
  • Hannes Schluchter (University of Bamberg, viva 2016). The Diachrony and Synchrony of Language and Dialect Phenomena in Great Britain: Distribution and Development of English Surname Clusters.
  • Katrin Betz (University of Bamberg, viva 2015). Adverbien und Depiktive im Spanischen als radiale Kategorien: Eine korpuslinguistische Untersuchung im Rahmen der Konstruktionsgrammatik.
  • Sarah Grech (University of Malta, viva 2014). Variation in English: Perception and Patterns in the Identification of Maltese English.
  • Anna-Maria Meyer (University of Bamberg, viva 2014). Wiederbelebung einer Utopie. Probleme und Perspektiven slavischer Plansprachen im Zeitalter des Internets.
  • Purity Ada Uchechukwu (University of Bamberg, viva 2010). A Corpus-Based Analysis of Igbo and Spanish Copula Verbs.
  • Shane Walshe (University of Bamberg, viva 2009). Irish English as Represented in Film.
  • Prof. (at the University of Munich) Michael Rödel (University of Bamberg, viva 2006). Doppelte Perfektbildungen und die Organisation von Tempus im Deutschen.
  • Lucía Loureiro Porto (University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain, viva 2005). The Semantic Predecessors of NEED in the History of English (c750-1710).

Post-Doctoral Supervision and Co-Supervision or Evaluation:

  • Dr. Katrin Betz (University of Bamberg, since 2021). Die pragmatische Funktion von Nebensatzkonstruktionen in den Romanischen Sprachen.
  • Dr. Stefan Schnell (Unviersity of Bamberg until 2021; subsequently: University of Zurich). Argument structure and referential choice in discourse: Corpus-based typological investigations in discourse and gammar.
  • PD Dr. Valentin Werner (Habilitation University of Bamberg, 2020). Performed language: Theory, description, and application.
  • Jun.-Prof. Dr. Stefan Hartmann (University of Bamberg until 2020; subsequently: University of Duesseldorf). Diachronie und Kognition: Empirische Fallstudien zu den kognitiven Grundlagen des Sprachwandels.
  • Marie-Luise Pitzl-Hagin (Habilitation University of Vienna, 2020). Spoken interaction and emergent linguistic practices: English as a lingua franca and Transient International Groups.
  • Prof. (at the University of Leipzig) Dr. Ole Schützler  (Habilitation University of Bamberg, 2018). Concessive Constructions in Varieties of English.
  • Dr. Anna-Maria Meyer (University of Bamberg, positive interim evaluation 2018; subsequently: University of Cologne). Slavische Einflüsse auf das Romani in Europa: Eine historisch-kontrastive Untersuchung.
  • Dr. Vyacheslav Yevseyev (Habilitation University of Bamberg, 2015). Nicht-ikonische Chronologie: Zeitlichkeit und Zeitreferenz im Deutschen, Englischen und Russischen.
  • Prof. Dr. Julia Schlüter (Habilitation University of Bamberg, 2008). Functional Determinants of Phonological and Grammatical Variation in English from the 12th to 21st Centuries.