Reactance in health communication; health and climate change; preferences in health care allocation; vaccination and social polarization.


Sprengholz, P., Betsch, C., & Böhm, R. (2024). Experimental testing of three categorization‐based interventions to reduce prejudice and discrimination against the unvaccinated in the aftermath of COVID‐19. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, Online-First.

Scholz, D. D., Bader, M., Betsch, C., Böhm, R., Lilleholt, L., Sprengholz, P., & Zettler, I. (2024). The moderating role of trust in pandemic-relevant institutions on the relation between pandemic fatigue and vaccination intentions. Journal of Health Psychology, 29(4), 358–364.

Eitze, S., Sprengholz, P., Korn, L., Shamsrizi, P., Felgendreff, L., & Betsch, C. (2024). Vicarious experiences of long COVID: A protection motivation theory analysis for vaccination intentions. Vaccine, 16(January 2024, 100417), 1–6.

Sprengholz, P., Tannert, S., & Betsch, C. (2023). Explaining Boomerang Effects in Persuasive Health Communication: How Psychological Reactance to Healthy Eating Messages Elevates Attention to Unhealthy Food. Journal of Health Communication, 1–7.

Gilan, D., Birkenbach, M., Wossidlo, M., Sprengholz, P., Betsch, C., Hahad, O., & Lieb, K. (2023). Fear of COVID-19 disease and vaccination as predictors of vaccination status. Scientific Reports, 13(1), 1–8.

Böhm, R., Sprengholz, P., Betsch, C., & Partheymüller, J. (2023). Filter Questions in Symptom Assessment Affect the Prevalence of (A)Symptomatic COVID-19 Cases. Medical Decision Making, 43(4), 530–534.

Sprengholz, P., Bruckmann, R., Wiedermann, M., Brockmann, D., & Betsch, C. (2023). From delta to omicron: The role of individual factors and social context in self-reported compliance with pandemic regulations and recommendations. Social Science & Medicine, 317, 115633.

Sprengholz, P., Schreckenbach, F., Giesen, C. G., Koranyi, N., & Rothermund, K. (2023). Guilty on the Go: Uncovering Concealed Information by Assessing Response Preparation Processes in a Go-Nogo-Paradigm. Collabra, 9(1), 1–12.

Shamsrizi, P., Jenny, M. A., Sprengholz, P., Geiger, M., Jäger, C. B., & Betsch, C. (2023). Heatwaves and their health risks: knowledge, risk perceptions and behaviours of the German population in summer 2022. European Journal of Public Health, 33(5), 841–843.

Sprengholz, P., Henkel, L., Böhm, R., & Betsch, C. (2023a). Historical narratives about the COVID-19 pandemic are motivationally biased. Nature.

Sprengholz, P., Henkel, L., Böhm, R., & Betsch, C. (2023b). Learning from the past?: how biased memories of the pandemic endanger preparation for future crises. Clinical and Translational Medicine, 13(12, e1510), 1–3.

Taubert, F., Sprengholz, P., Korn, L., Eitze, S., Wiedermann, M., & Betsch, C. (2023). Situational pathogen avoidance mediates the impact of social connectedness on preventive measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Scientific Reports, 13(1).

Sprengholz, P., Felgendreff, L., Buyx, A., & Betsch, C. (2023). Toward future triage regulations: Investigating preferred allocation principles of the German public. Health Policy, 134(August 2023, 104845).

Sprengholz, P., Korn, L., Felgendreff, L., Eitze, S., & Betsch, C. (2022). A lay perspective on prioritization for intensive care in pandemic times: Vaccination status matters. Clinical Ethics, 147775092210944.

Sprengholz, P., Korn, L., Eitze, S., Felgendreff, L., Siegers, R., Goldhahn, L., De Bock, F., Huebl, L., Böhm, R., & Betsch, C. (2022). Attitude toward a mandatory COVID-19 vaccination policy and its determinants: Evidence from serial cross-sectional surveys conducted throughout the pandemic in Germany. Vaccine, 40(51), 7370–7377.

Böhm, R., Betsch, C., Litovsky, Y., Sprengholz, P., Brewer, N. T., Chapman, G., Leask, J., Loewenstein, G., Scherzer, M., Sunstein, C. R., & Kirchler, M. (2022). Crowdsourcing interventions to promote uptake of COVID-19 booster vaccines. EClinicalMedicine, 53, 101632.

Sprengholz, P., Henkel, L., Böhm, R., & Betsch, C. (2022). Different Interventions for COVID-19 Primary and Booster Vaccination? Effects of Psychological Factors and Health Policies on Vaccine Uptake. Medical Decision Making, 43(2), 239–251.

Sprengholz, P., Henkel, L., & Betsch, C. (2022). Payments and freedoms: Effects of monetary and legal incentives on COVID-19 vaccination intentions in Germany. PLOS ONE, 17(5), e0268911.

Henkel, L., Sprengholz, P., Korn, L., Betsch, C., & Böhm, R. (2022). The association between vaccination status identification and societal polarization. Nature Human Behaviour, 7(2), 231–239.

Sprengholz, P., & Betsch, C. (2022). Zero-sum or worse? Considering detrimental effects of selective mandates on voluntary childhood vaccinations. The Journal of Pediatrics, 240, 318–319.

Korn, L., Siegers, R., Eitze, S., Sprengholz, P., Taubert, F., Böhm, R., & Betsch, C. (2021). Age Differences in COVID-19 Preventive Behavior. European Psychologist, 26(4), 359–372.

Sprengholz, P., Korn, L., Eitze, S., & Betsch, C. (2021). Allocation of COVID-19 vaccination: when public prioritisation preferences differ from official regulations. Journal of Medical Ethics, 47(7), 452–455.

Hajek, A., De Bock, F., Sprengholz, P., Kretzler, B., & König, H.-H. (2021). Attitudes towards the economic costs associated with measures against the spread of COVID-19: Population perceptions from repeated cross-sectional data of the nationally representative COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring in Germany (COSMO). PLOS ONE, 16(11), e0259451.

Adeyanju, G. C., Sprengholz, P., Betsch, C., & Essoh, T.-A. (2021). Caregivers’ Willingness to Vaccinate Their Children against Childhood Diseases and Human Papillomavirus: A Cross-Sectional Study on Vaccine Hesitancy in Malawi. Vaccines, 9(11), 1231.

Betsch, C., Sprengholz, P., Siegers, R., Eitze, S., Korn, L., Goldhahn, L., Schmitz, J. M., Giesler, P., Knauer, G., & Jenny, M. A. (2021). Empirical evidence to understand the human factor for effective rapid testing against SARS-CoV-2. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(32).

Sprengholz, P., Siegers, R., Goldhahn, L., Eitze, S., & Betsch, C. (2021). Good night: Experimental evidence that nighttime curfews may fuel disease dynamics by increasing contact density. Social Science & Medicine, 286, 114324.

Sprengholz, P., Eitze, S., Felgendreff, L., Korn, L., & Betsch, C. (2021). Money is not everything: experimental evidence that payments do not increase willingness to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Journal of Medical Ethics, 47(8), 547–548.

Sprengholz, P., & Betsch, C. (2021b). Ok Google: Using virtual assistants for data collection in psychological and behavioral research. Behavior Research Methods, 54(3), 1227–1239.

Sprengholz, P., & Betsch, C. (2021a). Previous SARS‐CoV‐2 infection is linked to lower vaccination intentions. Journal of Medical Virology, 93(12), 6456–6457.

Sprengholz, P., Betsch, C., & Böhm, R. (2021). Reactance revisited: Consequences of mandatory and scarce vaccination in the case of COVID‐19. Applied Psychology, 13(4), 986–995.

Felgendreff, L., Korn, L., Sprengholz, P., Eitze, S., Siegers, R., & Betsch, C. (2021). Risk information alone is not sufficient to reduce optimistic bias. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 17(5), 1026–1027.

Betsch, C., & Sprengholz, P. (2021). The human factor between airborne pollen concentrations and COVID-19 disease dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(34).

Sprengholz, P., Eitze, S., Korn, L., Siegers, R., & Betsch, C. (2021). The power of choice: Experimental evidence that freedom to choose a vaccine against COVID-19 improves willingness to be vaccinated. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 87, 106–108.

Sprengholz, P., Felgendreff, L., Böhm, R., & Betsch, C. (2021). Vaccination policy reactance: Predictors, consequences, and countermeasures. Journal of Health Psychology, 27(6), 1394–1407.

Eitze, S., Felgendreff, L., Korn, L., Sprengholz, P., Allen, J., Jenny, M. A., Wieler, L. H., Thaiss, H., De Bock, F., & Betsch, C. (2021). Vertrauen der Bevölkerung in staatliche Institutionen im ersten Halbjahr der Coronapandemie: Erkenntnisse aus dem Projekt COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring (COSMO). Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz, 64(3), 268–276.

König, H.-H., De Bock, F., Sprengholz, P., Kretzler, B., & Hajek, A. (2021). Willingness to bear economic costs of measures against SARS-CoV-2 in Germany. BMC Public Health, 21(1).

Sprengholz, P., & Betsch, C. (2020). Herd immunity communication counters detrimental effects of selective vaccination mandates: Experimental evidence. EClinicalMedicine, 22, 100352.

Schreckenbach, F., Sprengholz, P., Rothermund, K., & Koranyi, N. (2020). How to Remember Something You Didn’t Say. Experimental Psychology, 67(6), 364–372.

Hajek, A., De Bock, F., Wieler, L. H., Sprengholz, P., Kretzler, B., & König, H.-H. (2020). Perceptions of Health Care Use in Germany during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(24), 9351.

Gilan, D., Röthke, N., Blessin, M., Kunzler, A., Stoffers-Winterling, J., Müssig, M., Yuen, K. S. L., Tüscher, O., Thrul, J., Kreuter, F., Sprengholz, P., Betsch, C., Stieglitz, R. D., & Lieb, K. (2020). Psychomorbidity, Resilience, and Exacerbating and Protective Factors During the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International.

Betsch, C., Korn, L., Sprengholz, P., Felgendreff, L., Eitze, S., Schmid, P., & Böhm, R. (2020). Social and behavioral consequences of mask policies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(36), 21851–21853.

Habersaat, K. B., Betsch, C., Danchin, M., Sunstein, C. R., Böhm, R., Falk, A., Brewer, N. T., Omer, S. B., Scherzer, M., Sah, S., Fischer, E. F., Scheel, A. E., Fancourt, D., Kitayama, S., Dubé, E., Leask, J., Dutta, M., MacDonald, N. E., Temkina, A., … Butler, R. (2020). Ten considerations for effectively managing the COVID-19 transition. Nature Human Behaviour, 4(7), 677–687.