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Non-Sunni Muslims in the Late Ottoman Empire: State and Missionary Perceptions of the Alawis (I.B. Tauris/Bloomsbury, 2022)

Dissent and Heterodoxy in the late Ottoman Empire: Reformers, Babis and Baha’is (revised PhD thesis; ISIS Press: Istanbul, 2008).



‘Abdu’l-Bahá ‘Abbás”, in: Robert Stockman (ed.), The World of the Bahá’í Faith: A Handbook (Routledge 2022)

“Nazif, Süleyman”, in: Encyclopaedia Iranica Online (ed. Ehsan Yarshater),

Co-author with Todd Lawson, “The Qur’ān in Bahā’ī Writings”, in: Georges Tamer (ed.), Handbook of Qur’ānic Hermeneutics (forthcoming De Gruyter).

“The Ottoman Policy of ‘Correction of Belief(s)’”, in: Vefa Erginbaş (ed.), Ottoman Sunnism: New Perspectives (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2019), pp. 166-192.

“Alawiten – Geschichte, Glaubenssystem und Situation in Deutschland”, in: Udo Tworuschka/Michael Klöcker (eds.), Handbuch der Religionen (HdR) EL 60 (Westarp Verlag, 2019).

“Alawiten-Islamisch”, in: Lexikon für Kirchen- und Religionsrecht, Philosophisch- Theologische Hochschule Sankt Georgen, Frankfurt/Main, Germany (2019); DOI: 10.30965/9783506786371_0073

“Turkish Epitaph of a Muslim in Caesarea”, submitted and forthcoming in: Moshe Sharon, Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae (CIAP), vol. 6, J (2), (Brill: Leiden)

“Re-edition of The Turkish Inscription at the Quarantine of Hebron”, in: Moshe Sharon, CIAP, vol. 6, J (1), (Brill: Leiden, 2016), pp. 7-11.

“The Aṣḥāb al-Kahf Inscription of Sabil al-Mahmudi in Jaffa”, in: Moshe Sharon, CIAP, vol. 6, J (1), (Brill: Leiden, 2016), pp. 74-76.

“Turkish Epitaph of a Muslim in Jaffa (before 1245/1829?)”, in: Moshe Sharon, CIAP, vol. 6, J (1), (Brill: Leiden, 2016), pp. 103-105.

“Turkish Inscription of the Jaffa Police Station (Kishle)”, in: Moshe Sharon, CIAP, vol. 6, J (1), (Brill: Leiden, 2016), pp. 119-121.

“Filistin’de Jön Türkler ve Bahailer”, in: Eyal Ginio/Yuval Ben Bassat (tr. Erkal Ünal), Jön Türklerin Filistin’i (Koç Üniversitesi Yayınları: Istanbul, 2016), pp. 217-240.

“Divide and Rule: The Creation of the Alawi State after World War I”, Fikrun wa Fann (Art and Thought), no. 100: 100 Years First World War (a publication of the Goethe Institut), online at: (November 2013). Also available in German, Arabic and Persian translation.

“Commentary for the Turkish Inscription at the Quarantine of Hebron”, in: Moshe Sharon, (CIAP) vol. 5, H-I (Brill: Leiden, 2013), pp. 233-235.

“Fighting for the Nusayri Soul: State, Protestant Missionaries and the Alawis in the Late Ottoman Empire”, in: Die Welt des Islams 52:1 (2012), pp. 23-50.

“Medhat Pasha”, Encyclopædia Iranica (ed. Ehsan Yarshater), online: (2012)

“The Young Turks and the Baha'is in Palestine”, in: Eyal Ginio/Yuval Ben Bassat, Late Ottoman Palestine: The Period of Young Turk Rule (I.B. Tauris: London, 2011), pp. 259-278.

“Bahailik ve Jön Türk Devrimi”, in: Tarih ve Toplum: Yeni Yaklaşımlar, no. 11 (Güz 2010), p. 23-46.

“Süleyman Nazif’s ‘Open Letter to Jesus’: An Anti-Christian Polemic in the Early Turkish Republic”, Middle Eastern Studies 44:6 (2008), pp. 851–865.

“İsa’ya Mektup”, Atlas, no. 156, Mart 2006 (Islamophobia), pp. 132-135 (commentary on Muslim-Christian polemics, with reference to the “cartoon crisis”).

“Midhat Pasha and ‘Abdu’l-Baha in ‘Akka: The Historical Background of the Tablet of the Land of Ba”, in: Baha’i Studies Review 13 (2005), pp. 1-15.

“‘The Eternal Enemy of Islām’: Abdullah Cevdet and the Baha’i Religion”, in: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 68/1 (2005), pp. 1-20.

“Ottoman Reform Movements and the Bahā’ī Faith, 1860s – 1920s”, in: Moshe Sharon (ed.), Studies in Modern Religions, Religious Movements and the Bābī-Bahā’ī Faiths (Brill: Leiden, 2004), pp. 253-274.

‘Abdu’l-Baha’s commentary on the Islamic tradition: ‘God doth give victory to this religion by means of a wicked man’ – a provisional translation and notes, in: Baha’i Studies Review 11 (2001/2002), pp. 53-57.

“‘By the Fig and the Olive’: ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s Commentary in Ottoman Turkish on the Qur’ánic Sura 95 – notes and provisional translation”, in: Baha’i Studies Review 10 (2001/2002), pp. 115-128.


Cem Kara, Grenzen überschreitende Derwische: Kulturbeziehungen des Bektaschi-Ordens 1826-1925 (Religiöse Kulturen im Europa der Neuzeit ; Band 15), Vandenbroek & Ruprecht: Göttingen 2019, 439 pp., 3 Abb., ISBN (hardcover), in: WerkstattGeschichte, (forthcoming).

Stefan Winter, A History of the ʿAlawis: From Medieval Aleppo to the Turkish Republic, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016, xiii + 307 pp., index, 4 maps + 22 figures, ISBN 978-0-691-17389-4 (softcover), in: Der Islam,