Prof. Dr. Manfred Krug

Chair of English Linguistics

An der Universität 9, Raum 01.01

D-96047 Bamberg

+49 951/863-2165


  • 1989-91 & 1992-96: studied English, Latin and Greek at Freiburg University (teaching assistant in English Linguistics and Classical Archaeology; research assistant in English Linguistics)
  • 1991-92: M.A. in Applied Linguistics, University of Exeter (England)
  • 1996-99: Member of academic staff (50% position) and PhD programme at Freiburg University (major: English Linguistics, minor subjects: Latin and German Linguistics)
  • 1998: USA grant for PhD students: Research stays and presentations at the universities of Albuquerque, NM; Berkeley, CA; Flagstaff, AZ; Stanford, CA
  • 1999-2004: Post-doc/Assistant professor (C1), University of Freiburg
  • 2002: Visiting Professor at Portland State University, Oregon, USA
  • 2003: Completion of postdoctoral project ("Habilitation") in English Philology, University of Freiburg
  • 2004-05: Associate Professor (C2) at Freiburg University
  • 2005-06: Chair of English Linguistics (Focus on Diachrony), University of Mannheim
  • since 2006: Chair of English Linguistics and Language History, University of Bamberg
  • 2003-09: shortlisted for professorships also at Basel, Berlin, Leipzig, Tübingen, Vienna


  • 2000. Emerging English Modals: A Corpus-Based Study of Grammaticalization; Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. iv, 332pp.
  • 2003. (Facchinetti, Roberta, Manfred Krug & Frank Palmer; eds.). Modality in Contemporary English; Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. xiii, 396pp.
  • 2013 (with Julia Schlüter; eds.). Research Methods in Language Variation and Change; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. xxvi, 511pp.
  • 2018 (with Christopher Lucas; eds.). The Noun Phrase in Maltese and Maltese English (Special Issue of  Language Typology and Universals/Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 71.2, 158pp.).

Journal articles, handbook chapters, conference proceedings (selection)

  • 1998a. Englisch-deutsche Korpusanalysen: Kontrastive und diachrone Aspekte und ihre Relevanz im universitären Fremdsprachenunterricht; in: Wolfgang Börner & Klaus Vogel (eds.) Kontrast und Äquivalenz: Beiträge zu Sprachvergleich und Übersetzung. Tübingen: Narr, 168-193.
  • 1998b. British English is Developing a New Discourse Marker, Innit? A Study in Lexicalisation Based on Social, Regional and Stylistic Variation; Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik 23:2, 145-197.
  • 1998c. String Frequency: A Cognitive Motivating Factor in Coalescence, Language Processing and Linguistic Change; Journal of English Linguistics 26:4, 286-320.
  • 1999. Wanna: A new core member of the English modal paradigm? A study in grammaticalization. In: Hans Otto Spillmann & Ingo Warnke (eds.) Linguistik International 1: Internationale Tendenzen der Syntaktik, Semantik und Pragmatik (Akten des 32. Linguistischen Kolloquiums in Kassel 1997). Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 239-248.
  • 2001. Frequency, Iconicity, Categorization; in: Joan Bybee & Paul Hopper (eds.) Frequency and the Emergence of Linguistic Structure. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 309-335.
  • 2002. A path to volitional modality. In: Teresa Fanego, Maria José López-Couso & Javier Pérez-Guerra (eds.) English Historical Syntax and Morphology: Selected Papers from the Eleventh International Conference on English Historical Linguistics (11 ICEHL) 2000 at Santiago de Compostela (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, 223). Amsterdam: Benjamis, 131-155.
  • 2003. Frequency as a Determinant in Grammatical Variation and Change; in: Günter Rohdenburg & Britta Mondorf (eds.) Determinants of Grammatical Variation in English. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 7-67.
  • 2003. (Great) Vowel Shifts Present and Past: Meeting Ground for Structural and Natural Phonologists;Penn Working Papers 9.2: Selected papers from 11 NWAVE at Stanford, CA, USA, 107-122.
  • 2007. Modern Methodologies and Changing Standards in English Linguistics; in: María Losada Friend, Pilar Ron Vaz, Sonia Hernández Santano & Jorge Casanova (eds.) Proceedings of the 30th International AEDEAN Conference. Huelva: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Huelva. [CD-Rom]
  • 2009. Modality and the History of English Adhortatives; in: Raphael Salkie, Pierre Busuttil & Johan van der Auwera (eds.), Modality in English. Theory and Description (Topics in English Linguistics). Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 315-347.
  • 2010 (with Michaela Hilbert). The compilation of ICE Malta: State of the Art and Challenges Along the Way; ICAME Journal 34: 54-63.
  • 2011. Auxiliaries and Grammaticalization. In: Bernd Heine & Heiko Narrog (eds.) Handbook of Grammaticalization. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 547-558.
  • 2011 (with Lisa Bonnici & Michaela Hilbert). Maltese English. In: Bernd Kortmann & Kerstin Lunkenheimer (eds.) The electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English [eWAVE]. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  • 2012 (with Michaela Hilbert). Progressives in Maltese English: A comparison with spoken and written text types of British and American English. In: Ulrike Gut & Marianne Hundt (eds.) Mapping Unity in Diversity (Varieties of English around the World). Amsterdam: Benjamins, 103-136.
  • 2012. Ch. 48: The Great Vowel Shift. In: Alexander Bergs & Laurel Brinton (eds.) Historical Linguistics of English: An International Handbook (Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science, HSK). Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 756-776.
  • 2012 (with Anna Rosen). Standards of English in Malta and the Channel Islands. In: Raymond Hickey (ed.) Standards of English: Codified Varieties around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 117-138.
  • 2012 (with Lisa Bonnici & Michaela Hilbert). Maltese English. In: Kortmann, Bernd & Kerstin Lunkenheimer (eds.) The Mouton World Atlas of Variation in English. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 653-668.
  • 2013 (with Ole Schützler). Recent Change and Grammaticalization. In: Bas Aarts, Geoffrey Leech, Joanne Close & Jeremy Smith (eds.) The Verb Phrase in English: Investigating recent language change with corpora. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 155-186.
  • 2013 (with Julia Schlüter): Preface. In: Manfred Krug & Julia Schlüter (eds.) Research Methods in Language Variation and Change; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, xx-xxv.
  • 2013 (with Julia Schlüter & Anette Rosenbach). Introduction: Investigating language variation and change. In: Manfred Krug & Julia Schlüter (eds.) Research Methods in Language Variation and Change; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1-13.
  • 2013 (with Katrin Sell). Designing and Conducting Interviews and Questionnaires. In: Manfred Krug & Julia Schlüter (eds.) Research Methods in Language Variation and Change. Cambridge University Press, 69-98.
  • 2015. Maltese English. In: Jeffrey P. Williams, Edgar Schneider, Peter Trudgill & Daniel Schreier (eds.), Further Studies in the Lesser-Known Varieties of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 10-50. 
  • 2016 (with Ole Schützler and Valentin Werner). Patterns of linguistic globalization: Integrating typological profiles and questionnaire data. In Olga Timofeeva, Anne-Christine Gardner, Alpo Honkapohja & Sarah Chevalier (eds.) New Approaches to English Linguistics: Building Bridges. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins, 35-66.
  • 2017. The Great Vowel Shift. In: Alexander Bergs & Laurel Brinton (eds.) The History of English (Vol.4): Early Modern English. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 241-266.
  • 2017 (with Lukas Sönning). Language change in Maltese English: The influence of age and parental languages. In: Patrizia Paggio & Albert Gatt (eds.) The languages of Malta (Studies in Diversity Linguistics Series). Berlin: Language Science Press, 247-270.
  • 2018 (with Christopher Lucas). Definite article (omission) in British, Maltese, and other Englishes.Special issue of Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 71.2: 261-303. (DOI: 10.1515/stuf-2018-0012.)
  • 2018 (with Christopher Lucas). Introduction. In: The Noun Phrase in Maltese and Maltese English. Special Issue of Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 71.2: 169-173.
  • 2020 (with Ole Schützler and Valentin Werner). How British is Gibraltar English? In Paloma Nuñez Pertejo, María José López-Couso, Belén Méndez-Naya & Javier Perez-Guerra, eds. Crossing Linguistic Boundaries: Systemic, Synchronic and Diachronic Variation in English. London: Bloomsbury, 153-186.
  • Forthcoming (with Ray Fabri & Michaela Hilbert): Maltese English Morphosyntax: Corpus-Based and Questionnaire-Based Studies; Il-Lingwa Taghna (Special Issue; Alexandra Vella & Ray Fabri, eds.) Towards a Description of Maltese English, 49pp.

Plenary and invitational papers

  • Recurrent paths in the evolution of new English auxiliaries. International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley, 1998.
  • Frequency, Iconicity, Categorization: Evidence from Emerging Modals; Paper given at the invitational symposium Frequency Effects and Emergent Grammar. Carnegie Mellon University, July 1999.
  • Frequency as a Determinant in Grammatical Variation and Change; Paper given at the invitational symposium Determinants of Grammatical Variation in English. Paderborn, 2001.
  • Adhortative let’s: Negation and Grammaticalization; Plenary paper given at Pau, France: 2nd International Conference on Modality in English, Sept. 2004.
  • Historical Corpus Linguistics and Beyond; Paper given at the invitational symposium Corpus Linguistics – Perspectives for the Future. Heidelberg, Oct. 2004.
  • The Quest for Grammaticalization Parameters; Plenary paper given at Leuven, Belgium: From Ideational to Interpersonal: Perspectives from Grammaticalization (FitiGra), Feb. 2005.
  • Lecture Series on Grammaticalization and Language Change. Santiago de Compostela, May/June 2005.
  • Modern Methodologies and Changing Standards in English Linguistics; Plenary paper given at the Annual meeting of the Spanish Association for English and American Studies (AEDEAN, Associación Española De Estudio Anglo-Norteamericano), Spain. Dec. 2006.
  • Developing a Questionnaire for Investigating English-Romance Contact Varieties of English; Athens, GA, Oct. 2008
  • Recent Change and Grammaticalization in Constructions Marking Intention; Invitational Symposium on Current Change celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Survey of English Usage. London, July 2009.
  • Research Methodologies and Questionnaire Design: Investigating Language Variation and Change; Lecture series Cambridge, Winter 2010.
  • Maltese English: Grammar and Lexicon; Zurich, May 2010.
  • Sprachkontakt in Malta: Amerikanisierung – Globalisierung – Glokalisierung?; Erlangen, June 2010
  • Lecture Series on Contrastive Corpus Linguistics (English vs. German); Auxiliaries, Typology, Grammaticalization. University of South Carolina, March 2011.
  • Synchrony and diachrony: The role of corpora in the investigation of modality in English. Plenary paper at the Conference Modality, Corpus, Discourse; Lund (Sweden), June 2012.
  • 2nd-language varieties of English: Between globalization, regionalisation and exonormative standards. Augsburg, May 2013.
  • Maltese English: Fact or Fiction? October 2013, University of Malta.
  • Lecture Series on Questionnaire Studies and Language Change in English. Ljubljana, May 2014.
  • Questionnaire-based typologies for varieties of English around the world. June 2014, Regensburg.
  • Puerto Rican English: Between American and British English? Feb. 2015, University of Puerto Rico at Río Piedras.
  • English-Spanish language contact in Puerto Rico and patterns of linguistic globalization. March 2016, University of Texas at Austin.
  • Studies of social and stylistic variation in Englishes around the world. March 2016, University of Texas at Austin.
  • Linguistic Globalization in Varieties of English as a Native, Second and Foreign Language. University of Bayreuth, May 2017.

Research Interests

  • Language change (historical and in progress, esp. frequency, grammaticalization, lexicalization)
  • Corpus- and questionnaire-based variation studies
  • English-Romance language contact and change in (pen)insular situations (esp. Malta, Gibraltar, Channel Islands, Puerto Rico)
  • Early Modern English (esp. Great Vowel Shift)
  • Modal and auxiliary verbs
  • Pronoun constructions
  • Contrastive linguistics (esp. English - German)
  • Empirical methods in language variation and change


  • English-Romance language contact and change in (pen)insular situations: Malta, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Jersey, Puerto Rico (with the universities of Malta, Puerto Rico and Cambridge)
  • Scottish English (with the University of Münster): Compilation of ICE-Scotland; Morphosyntactic variation in Scottish Standard English
  • Bamberg Centre for Innovative Applications of Computer Science: Digital Heritage
  • Expansion of the Historical ARCHER Corpus (A Representative Corpus of Historical English Registers, 1650-1990). Cooperation with the following universities:
    Department of English, Northern Arizona University; Department of Linguistics, University of Southern California; Department of English, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg; Department of English, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; Department of English, University of Helsinki; Department of English, Uppsala University; Department of English, University of Michigan; Department of Linguistics and English Language, University of Manchester.
  • Project on Language Variation and Change with the Universities of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)

Editorial activities

  • Co-editor of the Series Bamberg Studies in English Linguistics (Lang)
  • Co-editor of the Series Bamberger Beiträge zur Linguistik (University of Bamberg Press)
  • Member of the Editorial Board of Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory (Mouton de Gruyter)
  • Member of the Advisory Board for the series Language in Performance (LIP; Narr-Francke-Attempto, Tübingen)
  • Member of the Board of Consulting Editors for Linguistics (2005-2010)
  • Member of the Board of Consulting Editors for ATLANTIS, Journal of the Spanish Association for English and American Studies (AEDEAN), section Historical Linguistics
  • Member of the editorial and advisory boards of the conference series Modality in English and The International Conference on the Linguistics of Contemporary English (ICLCE 2005ff.)
  • Referee for (inter alia): British Academy; Swiss National Science Foundation; Humboldt Foundation; German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD); Research Foundation Flanders
  • Referee reports for volumes on corpus linguistics, modality, grammaticalization, usage-based approaches, construction grammar, historical linguistics, research methods and varieties of English for Benjamins, Blackwell, CUP, EUP, OUP, Lang, Mouton de Gruyter
  • Referee reports for (inter alia) the journals Digital Scholarship in the Humanities;English Language and Linguistics; English World-Wide; Journal of Germanic Linguistics; LanguageLanguage in Society; Language Sciences;Language Variation & ChangeTeaching English as a Second or Other Language, and the series Studies in the History of the English Language.


  • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sprachwissenschaft
  • Anglistenverband
  • Member of the Nominating Committee for the International Society for the Linguistics of English (ISLE; with Bas Aarts, Laurie Bauer, Anne Curzan and Rajend Mesthrie) 
  • Trimberg Research Academy; Bamberg Graduate School of Linguistics; Bamberg Centre for Medieval Studies
  • Bamberg Centre for Innovative Applications of Information Technology
  • Alumnus of and grants by (inter alia): Bavarian Ministry for Science and Research; DAAD, DFG, Fulbright and Villigst.
  • Project "WegE": Pioneering Teacher Education

PhD Supervision

As main supervisor

The impact of abstract characteristics: Social network analysis of discourse community-specific linguistic variables in psychology and applied linguistics.

A Computational Approach to Detecting Regional Variation in English Corpora.

A Quantitative Approach to Informality in Australian English.

Interrogative constructions in varieties of English.

Transcultural pragmatics in English as a Lingua Franca interactions: How secondary school students negotiate meaning, rapport and identity.

Phonological Variation in German Learner English.

Spoken Irish English in Galway.

The Present Perfect in World Englishes: Charting Unity and Diversity.

A Sociophonetic Approach to Scottish Standard English.

Grammatical Variation and Change in Jersey English.

  • Donald Watson (University of Bamberg, ongoing)
  • Fabian Vetter (University of Bamberg, ongoing)
  • Romina Buttafoco (University of Bamberg, ongoing)
  • Michaela Hilbert (University of Bamberg, ongoing)
  • Katharina Beuter (University of Bamberg, viva 2019)
  • Lukas Sönning (University of Bamberg, viva 2017)
  • Katrin Sell (University of Bamberg, viva 2017)
  • Valentin Werner (University of Bamberg, viva 2013)
  • Ole Schützler (University of Bamberg, viva 2012)
  • Anna Rosen (University of Bamberg, viva 2011)

As second/additional/external supervisor or examiner

Clausal Complementation Patterns of Emotive Verbs across World Englishes: The Case of regret.

The Diachrony and Synchrony of Language and Dialect Phenomena in Great Britain: Distribution and Development of English Surname Clusters.

Adverbien und Depiktive im Spanischen als radiale Kategorien: Eine korpuslinguistische Untersuchung im Rahmen der Konstruktionsgrammatik.

Variation in English: Perception and Patterns in the Identification of Maltese English.

Wiederbelebung einer Utopie. Probleme und Perspektiven slavischer Plansprachen im Zeitalter des Internets.

A Corpus-Based Analysis of Igbo and Spanish Copula Verbs.

Irish English as Represented in Film.

Doppelte Perfektbildungen und die Organisation von Tempus im Deutschen.

The Semantic Predecessors of NEED in the History of English (c750-1710).

  • Raquel Pereira Romasanta (cotutelle Universities of Vigo, Spain, and Bamberg, since 2018)
  • Hannes Schluchter (University of Bamberg, viva 2016)
  • Katrin Betz (University of Bamberg, viva 2015)
  • Sarah Grech (University of Malta, viva 2014)
  • Anna-Maria Meyer (University of Bamberg, viva 2014)
  • Purity Ada Uchechukwu (University of Bamberg, viva 2010)
  • Shane Walshe (University of Bamberg, viva 2009)
  • Prof. Michael Rödel (University of Bamberg, viva 2006)
  • Lucía Loureiro Porto (University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain, viva 2005)

Post-Doctoral Supervision and Co-Supervision:

Diachronie und Kognition: Empirische Fallstudien zu den kognitiven Grundlagen des Sprachwandels.

The Grammar of Pop.

Slavische Einflüsse auf das Romani in Europa: Eine historisch-kontrastive Untersuchung.

Concessive Constructions in Varieties of English.

Nicht-ikonische Chronologie: Zeitlichkeit und Zeitreferenz im Deutschen, Englischen und Russischen.

Functional Determinants of Phonological and Grammatical Variation in English from the 12th to 21st Centuries.

  • Dr. Stefan Hartmann (since 2018)
  • Dr. Valentin Werner (since 2015)
  • Dr. Anna-Maria Meyer (since 2015, positive interim evaluation 2018)
  • PD Dr. Ole Schützler (Habilitation University of Bamberg, 2018)
  • Dr. Vyacheslav Yevseyev (Habilitation University of Bamberg, 2015)
  • Prof. Dr. Julia Schlüter (Habilitation University of Bamberg, 2008)