Digital Payment

Opportunities and threats of payment services within a digital agenda.

Payment transactions play an important role in our economy and are essential for all kinds of businesses and most customers in their everyday life (payment transactions are defined as transfer of money from one business entity’s power of disposal to another). Payment transactions represent the backbone of our interconnected, work-sharing, and border-crossing economy and society. Therefore, it is not surprising that the development of digital payment transactions is discussed more frequently, intense and contentious under the label ‘Digital World and Finance’, although the digitalization of the financial sector goes back to the 1980s in many western industrial countries.


Three different types of payment systems can be identified (B2C, Business-to-Consumer): stationary, internet, and mobile payment systems. Due to the fact that the digital processing of cashless payments (transfer, debit, card payment) and the various forms of self-service are often no longer perceived as an expression of digitalization, the first-mentioned type of payment systems stands for the analog world of payment services only at the first glance. In contrast, the other two types (internet and mobile payment systems) are commonly considered as prototypical forms of the digitization of payment systems.


The ongoing digitalization and its interlacing with analog processes nowadays allows non-banks to connect their core business areas (trading, information, communication) with the traditional division of (banking-)payments. If non-banks provide such payment services, they are often called FinTechs (Financial Services & Technology). FinTechs are not necessarily start-ups, but also international information-, trading-, and telecom companies such as Amazon, Google, Apple and Samsung that (want to) complement their core business areas of information, communication or trade with a new strategic business area.


The Deutsche Bundesbank concludes that data-based technologies and services will lead to simplifications in payment transactions on the one hand and to risks that are difficult to assess for each individual on the other hand. For instance, the amount of sensitive personal data that can be processed and evaluated in different ways rapidly increases due to the usage of different mobile devices. Users are hardly able to overview how the processing of their data takes place. This leads to a vague discomfort when personal information has to be mentioned, particularly when it comes to finance related data.


Full transparency is a necessary condition to recognize and take the chances of innovative concepts. But even more important is the sufficient condition that these information have a high quality.


Issues like security and data privacy should be handled with the highest priority to obtain, maintain, and enhance customers’ confidence. Customers often willfully or unintentionally produce personal data which could be - and actually is - exploited by third parties, for example the owners of suppliers’ business models or decision makers of governmental institutions. These personal data often have an institutional, social and/or economic value that all economic actors, including customers, should individually or collectively be able to negotiate with. From the customers’ point of view it is crucial how simple, comprehensible and clear they can recognize that they pay the services with their own personal data. In case of refusing the payment with personal data, it seems furthermore essential if there are alternatives except for not using the service anymore. This also includes a simple, clear and understandable labeling to what extent personal data will be used for direct or indirect personal, geographical, and technology-dependent price differentiation. This similarly concerns the labeling regarding the (IT-)security including the declaration of the expected and mandatory participation of the payers or of the persons who look for information or advice.

Selected publications

Oehler, A., Horn, M., 2020, Behavioral Portfolio Theory Revisited: Lessons Learned from the Field, Accounting and Finance, forthcoming.

Herberger, T., Horn, M., Oehler, A., 2020, Are intraday reversal and momentum trading strategies feasible? An analysis for German blue chip stocks, Financial Markets and Portfolio Management, 34, 179–197.

Oehler, A., Horn, M., Wendt, S., 2020, Do Robo-Advisors Address Less Risk-Averse People?; Behavioural Finance Working Group Conference, London, June 11-12, 2020.

Schmitz, J. T., Oehler, A., 2020, Does Mitigated Verbalization of Hedge Funds Affect Abnormal Stock Returns?; 2nd Frontiers of Factor Investing Conference, Lancaster University Management School, UK, April 2-3, 2020.

Oehler, A., Schneider, J., 2020, Social Trading: When do Signal Providers Gamble?; Behavioural Finance Working Group Conference, London, June 11-12, 2020.

Wanger, H. P., Oehler, A., 2020, Can Downside-Risk Measures Help to Explain the Reluctance of Households to Invest in XTFs? An Empirical Study Using the SHS-base; Behavioural Finance Working Group Conference, London, June 11-12, 2020.

Herberger, T. A., Oehler, A., 2020, Are Company-owned Social Media Channels Financial Intermediaries? Results from the German Stock Market; 28th Global Conference on Business and Finance, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 6-8, 2020.

Horn, M., Oehler, A., 2020, Automated Portfolio Rebalancing: Automatic Erosion of Invest-ment Performance?; 82. Wissenschaftliche Jahrestagung des Verbandes der Hochschullehrer für Betriebswirtschaft, Frankfurt a.M., März 17-20.

Oehler, A., Horn, M., Wendt, S., 2020, Information Illusion: Placebic Information and Stock Price Estimates; Jahrestagung 2020 Verein für Socialpolitik, Köln, September 27-30, 2020; 28th Global Conference on Business and Finance, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 6-8, 2020.

Oehler, A., Wedlich, F., Wendt, S., Horn, M., 2020, Does personality drive price bubbles?, Studies in Economics and Finance 36, forthcoming.

Oehler, A., Wanger, H. P., 2020, Household Portfolio Optimization with XTFs? An Empirical Study Using the SHS-base, Research in International Business and Finance 51, forthcoming.

Oehler, A., 2020, Crowdinvesting, WiSt Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Studium, forthcoming.

Horn, M., Oehler, A., Wendt, S., 2020, FinTech for Consumers and Retail Investors: Opportunities and Risks of Digital Payment and Investment Services, in: Walker, T. et al. (ed.), Ecological, Societal, and Technological Risks and the Financial Sector, Palgrave Macmillan, forthcoming.

Oehler, A., Horn, M., Wendt, S., 2020, Social Trading und Digital Investments, in: Herberger, T. A. (Hrsg.), Die Digitalisierung und die Digitale Transformation der Finanzwirtschaft, Tectum/Nomos, Baden-Baden, 41-72.

Herberger, T. A., Oehler, A., 2020, Unternehmenseigene Social-Media-Kanäle zur Kommunikation kapitalmarktrelevanter Unternehmensinformationen? Ein Blick in börsennotierte deutsche Unternehmen, in: Herberger, T. (Hrsg.), Die Digitalisierung und die Digitale Transformation der Finanzwirtschaft, Tectum/Nomos, Baden-Baden, 145-170.

Oehler, A., 2020, Algorithmen und Scoring: Verfolgte Verbraucher?, in: Kenning, P., Oehler, A., Reisch, L. (Hrsg.), Verbraucherwissenschaften, 2. überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage, forthcoming.

Oehler, A. , 2020, Crowdinvesting: Schwarmverbraucher?, in: Kenning, P., Oehler, A., Reisch, L. (Hrsg.), Verbraucherwissenschaften, 2. überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage, forthcoming.

Oehler, A. , 2020, Der vermessene und verkaufte Verbraucher?, in: Kenning, P., Oehler, A., Reisch, L. (Hrsg.), Verbraucherwissenschaften, 2. überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage, forthcoming.

Oehler, A. , 2020, Nudging in der Verbraucherpolitik?, in: Kenning, P., Oehler, A., Reisch, L. (Hrsg.), Verbraucherwissenschaften, 2. überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage, forthcoming.

Wendt, S., Horn, M., Oehler, A., 2020, Verbrauchervertrauen, in: Kenning, P., Oehler, A., Reisch, L. (Hrsg.), Verbraucherwissenschaften, 2. überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage, forthcoming.

Oehler, A., Horn, M., 2019, Does Households’ Wealth Predict the Efficiency of their Asset Mix? Empirical Evidence, Review of Behavioral Economics 6 (3), 249-282.

Oehler, A., Horn, M., Wendt, S., 2019, Information Illusion: Placebic Information and Stock Price Estimates; 2019 Society for Judgment and Decision Making Conference, Montreal, November 15-18, 2019; Psychonomic Society 2019 Annual Meeting, Montreal, November 14-17, 2019; 88th International Atlantic Economic Conference, Miami, October 17-20, 2019; 2019 Annual Meeting Academy of Financial Services, October 15-16, 2019, Minneapolis; IAREP/SABE Conference, Dublin, September 1-4, 2019; Behavioural Finance Working Group Conference, London, June 6-7, 2019.

Oehler, A., Horn, M., Wendt, S., 2019, Zeigen junge Erwachsene Financial Literacy im ökonomischen Alltag? Eine realitätsnahe Alternative zu einfachen Wissensabfragen, ZBB Zeitschrift für Bankrecht und Bankwirtschaft 31, 37-42.

Herberger, T. A., Oehler, A., Wedlich, F., 2019, Third party ownership arrangements: Is a ban in football really appropriate?, Journal of Governance & Regulation 8 (3), 47-57.

Oehler, A., Schmitz, J. T., 2019, Does Intensified Communication of Hedge Funds With Letters Affect Abnormal Returns?; Mutual Funds, Hedge Funds and Factor Investing Conference, Lancaster University Management School, UK, June 3-4, 2019.

Oehler, A., Schneider, J., 2019, Gambling with Lottery Stocks?; 2019 Behavioural Finance Working Group Conference, London, June 6-7, 2019.

Horn, M., Oehler, A., 2019, Automated Portfolio Rebalancing: Automatic Erosion of Invest-ment Performance?; 88th International Atlantic Economic Conference, Miami, October 17-20, 2019; 2019 Annual Meeting Academy of Financial Services, October 15-16, 2019, Minneapolis; EURO 2019, 30th European Conference on Operational Research, Dublin, June 23-26, 2019; 2019 FMA European Conference, Glasgow, June 12-14, 2019.

Oehler, A., Wanger, H. P., 2019, Household Portfolio Optimization with XTFs? An Empirical Study Using the SHS-base; EURO 2019, 30th European Conference on Operational Research, Dublin, June 23-26, 2019.

Oehler, A., Horn, M., 2019, Behavioral Portfolio Theory Revisited: Lessons Learned from the Field; Southern Finance Association (SFA) Annual Meeting, Orlando, November 20-23, 2019; 2019 Society for Judgment and Decision Making Conference, Montreal, November, 15-18 2019; 30th European Conference on Operational Research, Dublin, June 23-26, 2019; 11th Annual Meeting of The Academy of Behavioral Finance & Economics, Chicago, October 17-20, 2018; 2018 Behavioural Finance Working Group Conference, London, June 14-15, 2018; 54th Meeting of the Eastern Finance Association (EFA), Philadelphia, April 11-14, 2018.

Oehler, A., 2019, Gut vorsorgen?!, Der Souverän, 2/2019, 22-23.

Horn, M., Oehler, A., Wendt, S., 2019, FinTech for Consumers and Retail Investors: Opportunities and Risks of Digital Payment and Investment Services; Emerging Risks in Finance: Challenges and Opportunities for Investors, Institutions and Regulators Conference, Concordia University John Molson School of Business, Montreal, September 20-21, 2019.

Herberger, T. A., Oehler, A., Wedlich, F., 2019, Third Party Ownership Arrangements: An Alternative Financial Instrument for Sports Companies apart from Football?, Conference Proceedings, Corporate Governance: Search for the Advanced Practices, Rome, February 28, 2019.

Wendt, S., Horn, M., Oehler, A., 2018, Robo-Advisors: The Future of Financial Advice?, Tölvumál 43, 20-21.

Riskante Schwärmerei, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 9.7.2018

Risikoreiche schöne neue Anlegerwelt, Focus-Money, 27.6.2018

Oehler, A., 2018, Infos für den Schwarm: Werden Crowdinvesting-Kleinanleger mit VIBs gut informiert? Eine empirische Untersuchung, im Auftrag des MLR Ministerium für Ländlichen Raum und Verbraucherschutz (MLR) Baden Württemberg, Bamberg/Stuttgart

Oehler, A., Horn, M., 2018, Zur ungleichen ökonomischen Verteilung bei der Datennutzung oder: keine soziale Marktwirtschaft in der digitalen Welt!, Wirtschaftsdienst 98, Juli, 469-472

Oehler, A., Horn, M., Wendt, S., 2018, Mehr als „nur“ Crowdfunding: Wie die Digitalisierung Prozesse der Mittelstandsfinanzierung verändert, Corporate Finance 9, Heft 1-2, 3-7

Crowdinvesting: Top oder Flop, Finanztest, 24.5.2018

Versteckte Fallen für Schwärmer, immobilien report, 9.5.2018

Crowdinvesting ist für Kleinanleger sehr gefährlich, FAZ, 4.4.2018

Digitale Verwalter, analoge Probleme, Handelsblatt, 16.2.2018

Oehler, A., Horn, M., Wendt, S., 2018, Neue Geschäftsmodelle durch Digitalisierung? Eine Analyse aktueller Entwicklungen bei Finanzdienstleistungen; in: Keuper, F. et al. (Hrsg.), Disruption and Transformation Management, Springer, Wiesbaden, 325-341

Oehler, A., 2018, Infos für den Schwarm: Werden Crowdinvesting-Kleinanleger mit VIBs gut informiert? Eine empirische Untersuchung, im Auftrag der zeppelin universität – Forschungszentrum Verbraucher, Markt und Politik | CCMP und des MLR Ministerium für Ländlichen Raum und Verbraucherschutz (MLR) Baden Württemberg, Bamberg/Stuttgart.

Oehler, A., 2017, Grundsätze ordnungsgemäßer Bewertung durch Scoring; Wirtschaftsdienst, Oktober 2017, 748-751

Oehler, A., 2017, Der technologische Wandel: Herausforderungen in der Digitalen Welt; in: Kenning, P., Oehler, A., Reisch, L., Grugel, C. (Hrsg.) Verbraucherwissenschaften – Rahmenbedingungen, Forschungsfelder und Institutionen, Springer, Wiesbaden, 69-80

Interoperabilität, Datenportabilität, Datenverwertung/VG Daten/Wirtschaftsdienst: http://archiv.wirtschaftsdienst.eu/jahr/2016/11/chancen-der-selbstbestimmten-datennutzung/

Oehler, A., 2016, Digitale Welt und Finanzen. Formen des Crowdfunding: Handlungsbedarf für die Verbraucherpolitik? Veröffentlichungen des Sachverständigenrats für Verbraucherfragen, Berlin 2016.(90.1 KB)

Pressemitteilung vom 7.7.2016

Handelsblatt vom 11.7.2017

Global edition Handelsblatt vom 13.7.2016

Interview mit crowdfunding.de

 

Oehler, A., Horn, M., Wendt, S., 2016, Nicht-professionelle Investoren entdecken die digitale Welt; bankmagazin, Januar 2017, 26-29

Oehler, A., 2016, Chancen der selbstbestimmten Datennutzung?!; Wirtschaftsdienst, November 2016, 830-832

Oehler, A., Horn, M., Wendt, S., 2016, Nicht-professionelle Investoren in der digitalen Welt; Wirtschaftsdienst, September 2016, 640-644

Oehler, A., 2016, Auch der “Schwarm” braucht klare Regeln; Euro am Sonntag, 6.8.2016, 76-77

Oehler, A., Horn, M., Wendt, S., 2016, Benefits from social trading? Empirical evidence for certificates on wikifolios; 30th Annual Meeting of The Academy of Financial Services, Las Vegas, October 20-21, 2016; Research in Behavioral Finance Conference 2016, Amsterdam, September 15-16; International Review of Financial Analysis 46, 202-210

Oehler, A., Horn, M., Wendt, S., 2016, Was taugt die Finanzberatung durch Robo-Advisors wirklich?, Der Neue Finanzberater 2016, 2, 28-29

Oehler, A., 2016, Digitale Finanzberatung braucht standardisierte Produktinformationen, Der Neue Finanzberater 2016, 1, 15

Oehler, A., Horn, M., Wendt, S., 2016, Digitale Zahlungsdienste: Chinese Walls 2.0 oder Trennung?, DIVSI Magazin, Oktober , 23-25

Oehler, A., 2016, Upgrade notwendig? Finanzieller Verbraucherschutz in einer digitalisierten Welt - Einführung und Überblick, Fachgespräch, Deutscher Bundestag, Fraktion Die Grünen, Berlin, 22. Februar 2016

Oehler, A., 2015, Alles digital? Innovative Geschäftsmodelle im digitalen Zahlungsverkehr und Verbraucherpolitik; in: Wirtschaftsdienst, Dezember 2015, 817-821


Oehler, A., 2015, Digitale Welt und Finanzen. Zahlungsdienste und Finanzberatung unter einer Digitalen Agenda, Veröffentlichungen des Sachverständigenrats für Verbraucherfragen, Berlin.
Ergebnisse und Handlungsempfehlungen(70.7 KB)
Langfassung mit Executive Summary(580.4 KB) 
Kurze Zusammenfassung(76.6 KB) 
Pressemitteilung vom 19.1.2016(114.1 KB)

Oehler, A., 2015, Beratung digital? Chancen und Risiken der Online-Beratung, Bamberg.

Oehler, A., Stellpflug, J., 2015, Daseinsvorsorge in der Digitalen Welt: Der Staat für alle oder jeder für sich?, Stellungnahme der Verbraucherkommission Baden-Württemberg, Nr. 41, Stuttgart.

Oehler, A., Höfer, A., Wendt, S., 2011, Von Konsumenten & Anbietern. Herausforderungen der Verbraucherpolitik im digitalen Zeitalter, in: uni.vers Forschung, Mai, 28-31.

Micklitz, H.-W., Oehler, A., 2006, Verbraucherpolitik in der digitalen Welt, Stellungnahme des Wissenschaftlichen Beirats Verbraucher- und Ernährungspolitik beim BMELV, Berlin.