Office: Feldkirchenstr. 21, Room: FG1/00.11, 96052 Bamberg, Germany
Pillar 3: Changes in Human Capital, Labour Markets and Demographic Structures and their Impact on Social Inequality in Modern Societies
Research Interests: Family Policy, Gender Inequalities in Paid and Unpaid Work, Social Inequalities and Mobility in Education and Labour Markets, Gender and Welfare Attitudes, Quantitative Research Methods
// DISSERTATION PROJECT
Cumulative Dissertation on "Public Childcare Expansion and Changes in Maternal Employment and Parents' Gender Ideologies"
Article 1: Public Childcare Expansion and Changing Gender Ideologies of Parents in Germany (with Pia S. Schober)
This study investigates whether the expansion of public childcare in Germany has been associ-ated with individual-level change in parents’ gender ideologies. We extend the literature by developing and testing a theoretical framework of short-term impact of family policy institu-tions on attitude change over the life course. The analysis links the German Family Panel pairfam (2008 to 2015) with administrative records on childcare provision at county level and applies fixed effects panel models. Our findings show that the childcare expansion has been associated with moderate changes towards less traditional gender ideologies only among moth-ers in West Germany and mostly so among mothers without a college degree. Surprisingly, in East Germany, we found tentative evidence of more traditional gender ideologies among moth-ers without a college degree as the childcare reform unfolded. The results provide evidence that policy reforms may alter gender ideologies also in the short-term over the life course.
Article 2: The Expansion of Low-Cost, State-Subsidized Childcare Availability and Mothers’ Return-to-Work Behaviour in East and West Germany (with Irina Hondralis, in European Sociological Review, 2017, Vol. 33, No. 5, 693-707)
This study investigates whether increased availability of low-cost, state-subsidized childcare for under 3-year-olds in Germany is associated with shorter employment interruptions amongst mothers. By focusing on a major childcare reform in East and West Germany, we examine the effect in two contexts that differ markedly in the acceptance and use of formal childcare and maternal employment. We combine rich longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (2006–2014) with annual administrative county-level data on the availability of low-cost, state-subsidized childcare, estimating event history models. The results indicate that increased childcare availability for under 3-year-olds reduces mothers’ employment interruptions, particularly after a second childbirth, and increases the probability of returning to part-time or full-time employment as opposed to marginal employment. Furthermore, increased availability of low-cost, state-subsidized childcare increases mothers’ likelihood of returning to employment in the second year after childbirth, when paid leave entitlements expire and the availability of childcare becomes important. However, our results are only statistically significant for West German mothers and only after the birth of a second child. The study extends the literature on women's return-to-work behaviour by providing evidence on the medium-term impact of family policy on the duration of mothers’ employment interruptions.
Article 3: Maternal Employment in East and West Germany – Do all Mothers benefit from the Expansion of Public Childcare Services (2007-2015)?
Both standard economic labour theories as well as identity and gender construction theories presume that the effect of increased public childcare provision on maternal employment is very much likely to vary with mothers' socioeconomic background. To identify heterogeneous effects of public childcare provision on employment probability and actual weekly working hours among mothers with different socioeconomic background, this study exploits time and regional variation in the expansion of under-three childcare services in East and West Germany. The analysis links county-level data on annual childcare provision with individual-level data of the Socio-Economic Panel Study for 2007-2015. Using entropy balancing to match mothers in counties with a childcare ratio above and below the annual median, findings indicate that a profound provision of childcare services impacts positively on maternal employment, particularly in West Germany. Differences in mothers' socioeconomic background, however, induce heterogeneous reform effects with respect to education and number of children.
Zoch and Hondralis (2017): The Expansion of Low-Cost, State-Subsidized Childcare Availability and Mothers’ Return-to-Work Behaviour in East and West Germany. In: European Sociological Review 33 (5), 693-707. doi: 10.1093/esr/jcx068
Schober, Spieß, Stahl, Zoch and Camehl (2017): The Early Childhood Education and Care Quality in the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP-ECEC Quality) Study – K²ID-SOEP Data. In: Data Documentation 91. Berlin: DIW/SOEP.
Schober and Zoch (2015): Kürzere Elternzeit von Müttern: gleichmäßigere Aufteilung der Familienarbeit?, In: DIW Wochenbericht 50/2015, 1190-1196.
Schober and Zoch (2015): Change in the Gender Division of Domestic Work after Mummy or Daddy Took Leave: An Examination of Alternative Explanations, In: SOEPpapers 803.
Zoch: Maternal Employment in East and West Germany – Do all Mothers benefit from the Expansion of Public Childcare Services (2007 – 2015)?
Zoch und Schober: Expansion of Public Childcare Services and Changing Gender Ideologies of Parents in East and West Germany.
Schober und Zoch: Change in the Gender Division of Domestic Work after Mothers or Fathers took Leave: Exploring Alternative Explanations.
// CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS
Annual ESPAnet Conference 2017. "Childcare Availability and Mothers’ Labour Supply in East and West Germany – Do all Mothers benefit from the Childcare Expansion (2007-2015)?". Lisbon/Portugal. September 2017.
ECSR 2017 Conference 'Institutions, Inequality and Social Dynamics'. "Public Childcare Provision and Mothers’ Employment Participation in East and West Germany – Do all Mothers Benefit from Greater Availability of State-subsidised Childcare?". Milan/Italy. September 2017.
5th international pairfam User Conference. Presentation with Pia S. Schober: "Expansion of Childcare Services and Changing Attitudes of Parents in East and West Germany." Bremen/Germany, June 2017.
First Joint Doctoral Workshop of the PhD students from the Universities Trento, Bamberg, Tilburg and Milan at University of Trento. "Public childcare provision and mothers’ employment in East and West Germany Do all mothers benefit from the childcare reform (2007-2015)? " Trento/Italy. March 2017
Federal Institute for Population Research. Presentation with Irina Hondralis: "Mothers’ return-to-work behaviour in East and West Germany. An Analysis of the Stepwise Childcare Expansion between 2007 and 2014". Wiesbaden/Germany. April 2017.
Workshop 'What people know and think: The role of attitudes and information in the process of political decision-making and policy use' at the Bamberg Graduate School of Social Sciences Bamberg. Poster Presentation with Pia S. Schober: "Expansion of Childcare Services and Changing Attitudes of Parents in East and West Germany." Bamberg/Germany. March 2017.
SLLS Annual International Conference 'Education and the Life Course: Determinants and Consequences of Unequal Educational Opportunities'. Presentation with Pia S. Schober: "Expansion of Childcare Services and Changing Attitudes of Parents". Bamberg/Germany. October 2016.
SLLS Annual International Conference 'Education and the Life Course: Determinants and Consequences of Unequal Educational Opportunities'. Presentation with Irina Hondralis: "Public childcare expansion and mothers’ return to work behaviour – Evidence from Germany". Bamberg/Germany. October 2016.
38. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Soziologie 'Geschlossene Gesellschaften'. Presentation with Pia S. Schober: "Normative Leitbilder der Sozialpolitik? Der Ausbau frühkindlicher Betreuung und die Einstellungsveränderung von Eltern". Bamberg/Germany. September 2016.
Annual ESPAnet Conference 2016. Presentation with Pia S. Schober: "Expansion of Childcare Services and Changing Attitudes of Parents". Rotterdam/Netherlands. September 2016.
Annual ESPAnet Conference 2016. Presentation with Irina Hondralis: "How does universal childcare affect return to work patterns and what role does the social background play? Evidence from Germany". Rotterdam/Netherlands. September 2016.
ISA RC28 Annual Summer Conference 2016 'Economic inequalities, deprivation, and poverty'. Presentation with Irina Hondralis: "Public childcare expansion and mothers’ return to work behaviour – Evidence from Germany". Bern/Switzerland. August 2016.
3rd ISA Forum of Sociology 'The Futures We Want: Global Sociology and the Struggles for a Better World'. Distributed Paper with Pia S. Schober: "Change in the Gender Division of Domestic Work after Mummy or Daddy Took Leave: An Examination of Alternative Explanations". Vienna/Austria. July 2016.
3rd ISA Forum of Sociology 'The Futures We Want: Global Sociology and the Struggles for a Better World'. Distributed Paper with Pia S. Schober: "Day-Care Expansion and Changing Attitudes of Parents". Vienna/Austria. July 2016.
Mentoring-Programm für Frauen in Wissenschaft und Forschung, University of Stuttgart. Presentation: "Verhandlung am Wickeltisch? - Der Einfluss der Elternzeit auf die partnerschaftliche Arbeitsteilung". Stuttgart/Germany. July 2016.
ESA Research Network 'Sociology of Families and Intimate Lives' (RN13) Interim Meeting 'Parenthood: Perspectives on Family Lives'. Presentation with Pia S. Schober: "Do Attitudes follow Family Policy? Analysing the Impact of Day-Care Expansion on Attitude Change of Parents". Bristol/UK. July 2016.
SOEP2016 - 12th International German Socio-Economic Panel User Conference. Presentation with Irina Hondralis: "Public childcare expansion and mothers’ return to work behaviour – Evidence from Germany". Berlin/Germany. June 2016.
Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Demographie 'Aktuelle nationale und internationale Herausforderungen der Demografie'. Poster with Irina Hondralis: "Beruflicher Wiedereinstieg im Zuge des Kitaausbaus". Leipzig/Germany. March 2016.
Hohenheimer Tage der Familienpolitik 2015 'Familienleitbilder und Familienrealitäten in Deutschland', Familien Forschung Baden-Württemberg. Presentation: "Partnerschaftliche Arbeitsteilung – neue Modelle in Familie und Arbeitswelt?". Stuttgart/Germany. October 2015.
Herbsttagung der Familiensektion 'Regional und soziale Rahmenbedingungen der Familie' , Deutsche Gesellschaft für Soziologie. Presentation with Pia S. Schober: "Der Ausbau frühkindlicher Betreuungseinrichtungen und die Einstellungsveränderung von Eltern". Heidelberg/Germany. October 2015.
Annual BAGSS Conference 2015 'Inequalities', Bamberg Graduate School of Social Sciences. Presentation with Pia S. Schober: "Day-care expansion and changing attitudes of parents". Bamberg/ Germany. September 2015.
Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Demographie 'Spektrum demografischer Forschung in Deutschland: Herausforderungen - Leistungen - Perspektiven'. Presentation with Pia S. Schober: "After Mummy and Daddy Took Leave: What Explains the (Un)Changed Gender Division of Domestic Labour?". Berlin/Germany. March 2015.
// ACADEMIC BACKGROUND
10/2014 - 11/2017
Doctoral Fellowship, Bamberg Graduate School of Social Sciences, funded by the DFG
10/2011 - 03/2014
M.Sc. Economics, Specialization: Applied Econometrics, University of Leipzig
Master thesis: ‘The Re-entry of Mothers After the Expansion of Day-care in Germany’
09/2008 - 09/2009
Erasmus Scholarship, University of East London, Great Britain
10/2005 - 12/2011
Diploma in Sociology (M.A. equivalent), Graduation with distinction, University of Leipzig
Diploma thesis: ‘Reservationslöhne in Deutschland – mikroökonomische Einflussfaktoren’
04/2016 – 08/2017
Lecturer at Chair of Sociology 1 (Prof. Dr. Sandra Buchholz), University of Bamberg
04/2014 - 10/2014
Research Associate at DIW Berlin, Dept. Education and Family
10/2013 - 12/2013
Research Assistant at Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, University of Leipzig
04/2012 - 07/2013
Student Assistant at Institute for Economic Policy, University of Leipzig
02/2013 - 03/2013
Research Internship at DIW Berlin, Dept. of Education
10/2009 - 02/2013
Student Assistant at Institute of Sociology, Chair of Social Policy, University of Leipzig
07/2010 - 09/2010
Research Internship at University Hospital Leipzig, Dept. of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology
06/2009 - 07/2009
Research Internship at University of East London, Dept. of Sociology
Project ‘Exhausting Risks: CO2, the car industry and the regulatory state’
10/2007 - 07/2008
Research Internship at Institute of Sociology, Chair of Sociology and Methods, University of Leipzig
11/2007 - 02/2008
Student Assistant at Institute of Sociology, Chair of Comparative Analysis of Contemporary Societies, University of Leipzig
Seminar on Family Policy and Parental Employment (Summer term 2017, M.Sc.)
Seminar on Gender Role Attitudes (Winter term 2016/17, M.Sc.)
Seminar on Comparative International Family Policy (Summer term 2016/2017, M.Sc)
Stata Introduction as part of Advanced Econometrics (Winter term 2013/14, M.Sc.)
Seminar on Economic Policy (Summer term 2012 and 2013, B.Sc.)
Seminar on Social Policy (Winter term 2009/10 to 2012/13, B./M.Sc.)
Seminar on Analysis of Social Structures (WS 07/08, B./M.Sc.)
Service to the profession
Co-Organizer, Workshop 'The Role of Attitudes and Information in the Process of Political Decision-Making and Policy Use, University of Bamberg. Bamberg Graduate School of Social Sciences. March 2017
Co-Organizer, Conference 'Annual BAGSS Conference 2015 - Inequalities', Bamberg Graduate School of Social Sciences. September 2015
Ph.D. student representative for Bamberg Graduate School of Social Sciences, University of Bamberg (May 16 – Apr 17)
Prize for the best conference presentation at pairfam User Conference 2017 (€ 400), Bremen, June 2017
Prize for the best PhD conference presentation at European Sociological Association RN13 Interim Meeting (€ 250), Bristol, July 2016
Referee for Scientific Journals
Zeitschrift für Familienforschung (Journal of Family Research)
German Sociological Association, Group for Family Sociology
German Sociological Association, Group for Social Policy
International Sociological Association, Research Committee 06
// RELATED CONTENT
Find articles and events on the website of the Graduate School which are connected to Gundula's work and contributions:
ORGANIZER & HOST
WHAT PEOPLE KNOW AND THINK: The Role of Attitudes and Information in the Process of Political Decision-Making and Policy Use