Mount Lebanon Crisis of 1860; European Intervention and Inter-Religious Conflict.

The Research focuses on Mount Lebanon Crisis of 1860. Mount Lebanon Crisis refers to the conflict between Muslim Druzes and Christians Maronites that has began as early as 1839 and intensified on 1860. The main reason of the unrests on the Ottoman soil dates as back as Crimean War (1853-1856); Ottoman Empire has declared Islahat firman, hoping that foreign interventions to Ottoman Empire could be prevented. This Firman and afterwords Tanzimat firman has given some privileges to the Christian subjects of the Empire and recognised Christians equal to Muslims. As expected, this caused an outrage in the Muslim subjects and created a displeasure. Former Syria, used to refer to a large territory which was divided to four states as Aleppo, Şam, Sayda and Baghdad. Syria had the cosmopolitan structure and was divided to several sects and religions. The displeasure among the subjects of the Ottoman Empire caused conflicts especially between Druzes and Maronites, which ended up with a foreign European Intervention. Therefore, The focal points of the research are History of European Cooperation, Intervention and Security Policies and History of International Relations.

After the French Revolution, ethnical elements have been informed about a new concept “Nationalism” and those groups were well informed about their culture. Especially a French intervention in Ottoman territories would be seriously in danger as there were a risk to convince those groups to secede from the Empire. Ottoman Empire’s initiatives to secure its territories against nationalism was to declare “Tanzimat” to create a new concept “Millet” or “Osmanlilik. Tanzimat reforms were designed to centralize power through modernism. Ottoman Empire, was aimed to modernize the army, innovate information, communication and transportation technologies along with cultural harmonization in order to be able to secure itself from foreign and internal threads. Analysing this specific case will give the result that Lebanon Crisis could be an event that changes our understanding of International Security, International Relations and as well Colonialism’s arguments.