The Shi͑a affiliations in Egypt in the first century AH (after hijra)
After prophet Mohammad ‘death, disagreement broke out over the leadership of Muslim community for the majority of Muslims the leadership was more political than religious so they disregarded the idea of hereditary sanctity of prophet Mohammad’s house and chose Abu-Bakr as leader ; Unlike previous group some companions asserted the priority of the Household of the Prophet, ͑Ali ibn Abi Talib, and supported him as the most eligible candidate. This opinion couldn’t gain enough support, Ali’s follower delayed for some time in accepting Abu Bakr's succession, however, they gradually one after the other, were reconciled to the situation and swore allegiance to Abu-Bakr.
After Abu Bakr and Umar,'Uthman -who was from Umayyad clan- came to power. His caliphate was a turning point in many ways; he employed notorious people of Umayyad family and distributed Muslim’s wealth among them, he also initiated some innovation in Islamic laws.
His action made a dilemma in infant Islamic society that caused disaffection between Muslims. Some of the prophet’s companions went to garrison cities and propagated against ‘Uthman’s actions. After rising complaints against him in garrison cities, the dissidents set out to Medina and besieged his house, unfortunately, he was killed by rebellions.
The important point regarding the succession issue after prophet is that the election of Abu Bakr and Umar as the Muslims’ leader was not really a matter open to all members of the Islamic state, but only to the leading members of the Medina community, but the attendance of Muslims of garrison cities at the time of ‘Uthman’s assassination opened the matter of choosing the successor to a larger part of Muslim community .The Arab tribesmen forced themselves to the forefront of the Islamic polity and nominated their choices for the Islamic caliphate, among them the Egyptian had a key role in securing the power for ͑Ali.
Two years after Uthman’s assassination, Mu͑awiyah (the governor of Syria ) decided to capture Egypt. He sent his troops commanded by Amr ibn al-͑as with the excuse of ͑’Uthman’s vengeance, Mohammad ibn Abi Bakr (the appointed governor of Egypt by ͑Ali ibn Abi Talib) defeated against Mu͑awiyah and Egypt went under the rulership of Umayyad with ͑Uthmanid’s thought.
After that, we could find some historical evidence for the Shi͑i affiliations in this area, but the defeat of Mohammad ibn Abi Bakr against ͑ Uthmanid’s camp and the key role of Laith ibn Sa͑d as the progenitor of ‘Uthmanid’s thought in Egypt are strong evidence for predominance of ͑Uthmanid’s thought in this area. This research with focusing on the study of tribes, political incidents, and Hadith narrations will examine the existence of Shi’i affiliation in this area in the first century (AH).